The Microbiome-Thyroid Link: A Review of the Role of the Gut Microbiota in Thyroid Function and Disease
Keywords:Autoimmune thyroid diseases, Dysbiosis, Gut microbiota, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid hormones
The gut microbiota has emerged as a potential regulator of thyroid homeostasis and disease. Recent studies suggest that the composition and diversity of intestinal bacteria can impact thyroid stimulating hormone levels, thyroid hormone synthesis & metabolism and the risk of thyroid conditions like hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis. However, the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota influences the thyroid remain poorly understood. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the role of the gut-thyroid microbiome axis in thyroid physiology and pathophysiology. Studies investigating the association of gut dysbiosis with altered thyroid function and disorders like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis were discussed. Potential mechanisms through which gut bacteria may influence thyroid hormone levels and autoimmunity, such as interference with autoantigen presentation, induction of inflammation, and production of metabolites were evaluated. The impact of dietary and probiotic interventions targeting the gut microbiota for managing thyroid disease is assessed. Future research directions focusing on delineating key bacteria influencing thyroid health, characterizing longitudinal microbiota changes in thyroid conditions, and identifying novel microbiota-based therapies are proposed. A deeper understanding of the gut-thyroid axis may lead to microbiota-targeted strategies for managing thyroid disorders.
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